The Zebra Pleco (Hypancistrus zebra) is a type of Pleco whose natural habitat is the Rio Xingu in Brazil, one of the largest clearwater basins in the Amazon. Because of construction of dams in their natural habitat, the fish is classified as endangered in the wild.
Common names include Zebra Plecostomus, Imperial Pleco, and they are also known by the “L” numbers L46 or L98. It is part of the Loricariidae family.
The Zebra Pleco is a small, delicate fish with a white body, bold black stripes that run laterally, with a black stripe that runs from one pectoral fin to another. Under the right lighting conditions, the stripes can get very vibrant. They can also exhibit a faint blue sheen around their eyes and dorsal fin area.
They have a flat bottom and under-turned sucker mouth that is surrounded by four whiskers, which are used to sense the surroundings and prepare for any threats.
The eyes are high set, large, and bulbous.
They have a set of large-rayed fins. They have a tall triangular dorsal fin, though the fish can also lay it down flat for a more streamlined profile. They have two sets of pectoral fins on the sides of the body. The pectoral fins are often more prominent on males.
As a general rule, Zebra Pleco is a little smaller than other plecos and will grow to between 3 and 4 inches when fully grown.
Zebra Pleco Lifespan
The average lifespan of the Zebra Pleco is between 10 and 15 years in a well-maintained tank. Typical causes of early death include substandard living conditions or poor-quality food.
Zebra Pleco Care
The natural habitat for Zebra Pleco is Rio Xingu in the Amazon, and the goal is to mimic the ideal water conditions that are found there. This can reduce the risk of premature death or other complications that Zebra plecos face in captivity.
The ideal habitat for Zebra Pleco includes a 20-gallon aquarium at minimum, with a larger tank very suitable for more swimming space. Use fine sand or river gravel as the substrate. To the substrate, add natural rocks, driftwood, and artificial caves to mimic its natural habitat. Since this is a shy fish, it will want to have a lot of secure spots to take refuge. The more hiding spots, the more they will come out into the open since they know they can retreat quickly if necessary. Add a variety of plants to fit this environment. Avoid using anything that is sharp or has jagged edges to avoid injury when they swim.
Some say the Zebra Pleco is easy to maintain, while others say it is a difficult species and requires expert care because of demanding water quality requirements. They prefer warmer water and nothing that is too alkaline or too acidic. Water Temperature should be between 79°F to 88°F (somewhere in the middle is best), with a pH Level of 6.5 to 7.0, and 2 to 6 KH.
Monitoring this levels is important as the fish can be sensitive to changes, and you should perform regular water tests to keep everything consistent.
Zebra Plecos come from a clearwater, fast-moving river and need clean, flowing, highly-oxygenated water. Moderate-to-high water currents simulate the conditions of river rapids and can be provided with an aquarium powerhead. Make sure it has an air intake since it can suck in air when powered on, giving additional oxygenation. The powerhead should be turned off when feeding so food does not get blown throughout the tank.
This fish is a nocturnal freshwater fish, so you want to have low light in the tank during the day when they are hiding or sleeping. Switch the lights off during the night when they come out to play and eat.
Food & Diet
Zebra Plecos are omnivores. They do better on a high-protein diet. You may see them eating aquarium algae periodically, but this should not be the only food they get.
They are bottom dwellers and will do better with sinking pellets rather than flakes. They enjoy brine shrimp and bloodworms, as well as live or freeze-dried foods. Occasionally give them an algae water or blanched vegetables, such as crushed peas and zucchini.
You can also offer them chunks of seafood such as fresh fish, mussels in the shell, and shrimp! Because these products affect your water quality due to quick decay, they can produce a lot of ammonia, so keep this in mind.
These fish are shy by nature, so make sure you feed them in a quiet spot in the tank. If they are part of a community tank, you may need to feed them separately so they feel safe and comfortable. They should be fed two to three times per day.
Zebra Pleco Breeding
In the wild, these fish spawn in the warm rainy season, between July and September.
Zebra Pleco breeding is a fairly straightforward process that you can trigger with a few simple water changes.
First, raise the water temperature to around 82 degrees Fahrenheit. Make sure the aquarium is well aerated by infusing oxygen into the water with an air stone and pump. Make sure there are caves where spawning can take place.
The female will fill with eggs, and the male will pursue her and chase her into a cave. She’ll lay about 15 eggs, which the male will fertilize. The male will watch over the cave to protect the eggs. They usually hatch three to seven days after they are laid. In the first few days, the babies will live off the egg sac. After that, they have receive powdered fry food and can then transition to baby brine shrimp.
Zebra Plecos are very shy and can be passive. They are timid in a new environment and will hide out in caves to get away from other fish, keeping to themselves. Nocturnal by nature, their activity level increases at night when they will explore the tank and look for food.
They can be territorial with other fish, especially the males. Therefore, larger tanks are better for groups with more than one male, which will minimize territorial aggression.
Zebra Pleco Tank Mates
Zebra Plecos are suitable for community tanks. However, they do not like to compete for their food or their space. Feeling threatened or stressed out can lead to aggression and restlessness, which can contribute to early death.
The best tankmate would be another Zebra Pleco, but if you do this, make sure you have one male with a few females to reduce the risk of aggression.
Otherwise, stick with similarly-sized fish that are peaceful, non-aggressive, and that stick to the upper parts of the aquarium. Stay away from other bottom dwellers. Because of the shy nature, the Zebra Pleco will not compete for food if there are other bottom dwellers present. Also, stay away from larger and more-active fish. Zebra plecos are comparatively smaller compared to other catfish, so they are at risk of getting eaten by larger fish.
Here are some examples of good tank mates for Zebra Plecos:
- Cardinal, Phantom, and Ember Tetra
- Bumblebee goby
- Celestial pearl danios
- Harlequin Rasbora
- Cory catfish
- Denison Barbs
- Zebra Otocinclus
- Certain Guppies
- Cherry Shrimp
- Kuhli loach
- African leaf fish
- Community fish that enjoy flowing water
Some freshwater aquarium snails can do well in a Zebra Pleco tank as long as there aren’t too many.
Here are some examples of possibly incompatible tank mates for Zebra Plecos:
You should also avoid other fish that prefer alkaline water, like Livebearers and African Cichlids, or other fish that prefer still water, like Gouramis and Bettas.
Zebra Plecos are fairly healthy, but like other freshwater fish, they are at risk of experiencing all of the standard freshwater fish diseases, including Ich, fungal infections, and bacterial infections, with fungal and bacterial infections being quite common with Zebra Plecos. Many owners do anti-bacterial treatments regularly, but if the tank is maintained properly, this is not necessary.
If the water starts to look cloudy from the outside, it needs to be cleaned. Change about 20% of the water each week to keep it clean and healthy. This also helps prevent diseases. A powerful filter will keep the water in the tank clean and livable.
If the Pleco shows signs of disease, quarantine it and provide the necessary treatment. Avoid copper-based products, as the fish is sensitive to this.
Male and Female Zebra Pleco
There are subtle differences between the male and female Zebra Pleco. Once fully mature, the male has hair-like spines on his pectoral fins and bristles on their gill covers. These bristles are used when fighting rivals, as well as to defend against predators.
The female Zebra Pleco has a less-pointed head, and she has smaller bristles on the gill covers. Her belly make appear light orange or yellow when she is carrying eggs.
Where to Find Zebra Plecos for Sale
Due to their endangered classification, it can be hard to find Zebra Plecos, and this makes it an expensive aquarium fish. Online retail prices are in the $300 to $400 range, with local breeders asking $150 to $200 per fish.